This is default featured slide 1 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

This is default featured slide 2 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

This is default featured slide 3 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

This is default featured slide 4 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

This is default featured slide 5 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

Friday, April 28, 2017

Botnets for Discovering and Monitoring Terrorism Related Content on the Dark Web

The recent global epidemic of terrorist attacks has revealed how terrorists are not only utilizing the surface web, but also the dark web for building and establishing their networks. To counteract this, Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) need efficient and effective means for detection and monitoring of terrorism related content on the internet, in order to prevent the occurrence of terrorist attacks via analyzing and mining relevant content that can lead to tracing back of the real world identities of members of terrorist organizations, the types of explosives they use, how they build their bombs and even their upcoming attacks.

Websites on the Dark Web utilize anonymization algorithms to mask their IPs and physical geolocations, which renders the Dark Web an ideal place for storing content and providing means of communications for terrorists. Furthermore, terrorists can now implement technologies that has the capability to detect and block bots that automatically gather and parse content from anonymous services on the Dark Web, which renders it even much more difficult for LEAs to detect and collect such content.

As such, there is now an urgent need for tools that can automate the process of discovering and gathering of content related to terrorism on the internet, whether on the Surface or the Dark Web, while also bypassing the previously mentioned protection mechanisms.

A group of researchers from the University of Arizona, created a project, which they named “The Dark Web Project”, which aimed at the formulation of special tools that can crawl the web for the detection and gathering of terrorism related content in general. The project mainly focused on the crawling and detection of content related to terrorism on forums, rather than on general websites, with the application of special authentication techniques in order to bypass the majority of protection mechanisms deployed when they are accessed. The HOMER project aimed at discovering and gathering of terrorism related content and especially information related to recipes for homemade explosives via the introduction of hybrid crawlers, which are capable of accessing websites on the surface web as well as on Tor, Freenet and I2P, which represent the most popular darknets on the Dark Web.

The HOMER project concluded that most servers storing such content deploy security mechanisms that block users who exhibit unusual behavior patterns (e.g. following links according to their order within the content of a website’s page or sending a large number of successive requests). Even the most advanced technological methodologies can fail at bypassing the applied protection mechanisms, as they mostly rely on static approaches for the detection and monitoring of relevant content ( e.g. using pre-trained classifiers, issuance of requests within constant predetermined time intervals, applying the breadth first crawling strategy….etc).

A recently published paper introduced a botnet, represented by a network that consists of several machines, referred to as bots or zombies, which automate a process emulating human like browsing behavior, for collecting content relevant to a specific field of interest from websites on the surface web and a number of darknets on the Dark Web. These bots are customized to gather content related to terrorism and also have the capability of utilizing specific codewords that have been identified by LEAs as being used by terrorists throughout their conversations. Each bot has a dynamic behavioral pattern that follows a unique crawling pattern that emulates human like internet browsing behavior, which renders it almost impossible for a server to distinguish the behavior of bots from that of real human users.

What is a Botnet?

The word botnet originates from two words; “robot” and “network”, and represents a communicating network of machines, which are referred to as bots or zombies. In most cases, bots are utilized in malicious tasks; as bots infect machines allowing them to be remotely controlled by the attacker without the knowledge of their owners. In the case of the crawling botnet we just discussed, the botnet software is supposedly willingly installed by the users, so no malware is installed or any other illegal actions take place for the distribution and operation of the crawling botnet. Generally speaking, botnet technologies, their frameworks and communication protocols can vary greatly according to the Botmaster’s (i.e. the developer and/or the controller of the botnet) goals he/she is looking to achieve via the botnet.

Probation Sentence Imposed On German For Commercial Trafficking Of Amphetamine

The Sigmaringen District Court sentenced a German citizen to probation for ordering amphetamine from the darknet in large quantities and selling them to customers for a profit.

According to the court documents, two trials were held by the jury and four witnesses had been heard in the case of the 39-year-old accused from Pfullendorf, Germany. The defendant was accused of the commercial trafficking of narcotics in three cases.

“He [the defendant] stands on the knife’s edge”, the 39-year-old’s lawyer said about his client’s case, after the prosecutor’s office demanded a two-year prison sentence without parole.

At his court hearing, the accused spoke openly about his narcotic addiction, which began, according to him, since he was 15-years-old. Without an apprenticeship, he worked part-time at occasional jobs. That was the time he became addicted to drugs. According to the defendant, after he discovered the dangers and the problems with the whole addiction, he completed a nine-month long-term therapy and remained abstinent for five years. He returned to Pfullendorf, where, according to his own statements, he fell back into the old circle of friends and the “old water”, that is, drug consumption. With his roommate, they discovered the dark web. They made a plan to order large amounts of amphetamine from different sellers, which they could resell for a better price in order to make profits. According to the 39-year-old’s confession, all orders were conducted on the dark side of the internet, and he paid for the narcotics in bitcoins. Since he purchased amphetamine in bulk quantities, the price per gram ranged from two to three euros. The accused made advantage of the price gap and sold the substance to customers locally for 5-10 euros per gram.

The court heard that on several occasions, the customs authorities seized packages addressed to the suspect with about 100 grams of amphetamine in each parcel, which resulted in law enforcement authorities investigating the defendant, and the prosecution charging him with the commercial trafficking in narcotic drugs in three cases. Recently, investigators arrested a courier from the Netherlands who, according to the prosecutor, had a total of 22 “consignments”. Despite the fact that the courier had been caught, there is no information on whether the 39-year-old was connected to the arrested man. Court documents only provided information on the fact that the man allegedly carried out 22 “consignments”.

The accused admitted that he still occasionally smokes marijuana, however, he feels strong enough to “defy the addictive danger”, thanks to a new relationship and family retention. The 39-year-old stated that he is not an addict anymore and has no need for professional help.

The defendant’s lawyer pleaded for a probation penalty for his client. He commended the courage of the suspect since he spoke so openly about his addiction and that he honestly admitted the fact that there is never a 100 percent security against a relapse in the case of an ex-addict. Unlike the prosecutor, the defender had seen a positive social prognosis. According to the lawyer, the prosecutor’s recommended sentence of two-year of imprisonment would be too harsh for his client.

“In the smallest offense, the calling will be revoked!” these were the last words of the accused on his court trial. The defendant claimed that he “made his own addiction therapy” with the help of his girlfriend and family.

“We have honored your great honesty,” Judge Jürgen Dorner said after a 20-minute consultation. The judge sentenced the 39-year-old to 18-months of prison, suspended to four years on probation. The fact that the accused had not been previously convicted was also a mitigating factor.

“You have to show that you are able to do that,” Dorner added that the accused, who accepted the verdict in the courtroom, had to do 160 hours of non-profit work additionally to the probation sentence. The court trial ended really quickly since the accused and his lawyer decided to plead guilty to all charges against the defendant.

Prosecutor Appeals The Judgment In Swedish Vendor Case

At the end of February, four men were standing trial at the Halmstad District Court in Sweden for running a vendor shop selling narcotics on the dark web. Later on, the same week, one of the suspects confessed his crimes. Now, almost a month after two of the defendants were sentenced and the other two accused persons were set free, the prosecution appeals the judgment.

According to the court documents, the four suspects were allegedly selling narcotics on the dark web. They were charged with aggravated drug trafficking and serious drug offenses. The vendor group ordered (possibly from the dark web) bulk quantities of narcotics and resold them on darknet marketplaces for profits. The suspects allegedly sold substances to about 20 customers, police information claimed. They accepted bitcoins and shipped the narcotics in vacuum sealed packages using the national postal service.

Law enforcement authorities were already ahead of the vendor group. As they caught the trail, they started investigating them. Authorities managed to intercept some of the parcels the vendors sent to their customers containing narcotics. The seized packages were considered as part of the evidence in the trial. Additionally, police immediately detained two of the suspects after they picked up a package containing five kilograms of amphetamines from a postal delivery point in Åled, a municipality outside Halmstad, Sweden.

After their arrest, all of the defendants denied the allegations against them. However, later on, one of the suspects admitted that he picked up the narcotics from the postal delivery point on the behalf of another person. The accused person also added that he did not know that the amount of drugs in the package was so much and that there were substances other than amphetamine in the parcel.

Swedish news outlet, sverigesradio.se, conducted a brief interview with Charlotte Österlund, the prosecutor in the case.

“It started with reconnaissance and then after they were arrested, we have interrogated them,” the prosecutor said.

Österlund, when asked about the “evidence situation”, she said that she believes there is enough evidence in the case.

“This is new information for us, but it changes nothing for us”, the prosecutor said regarding the confession of one of the suspects.

On March 15, the Halmstad District Court sentenced one of the defendants, who is believed to be the main suspect in the case, to six years in prison for serious drug offenses and for selling narcotics on the dark web. Another man was convicted of complicity in the crimes, while the two other defendants were set free from police custody with the charges dropped against them.

“With regard to the principal, he [the main suspect] was sentenced to six years, but there are a few others that we believe were involved who have been acquitted,” Österlund said after the verdict.

“Not when it comes to those who have been accomplices to the crimes,” the prosecutor added after she was asked if she was satisfied with the verdict.

“I think we had a lot of evidence against him [the main suspect], which helped and transported, but we’ll look at it,” Österlund said about the main defendant’s case.

On April 11, the prosecution appealed the judgment. According to prosecutor Gisela Sjövall, there is enough evidence to convict the two “freedmen”, and that there is evidence that the man defendant who was sentenced to six years in prison could be given a longer sentence.

“We do not share the district court’s judgment,” Sjövall said in a statement. “We believe that there are circumstances that make it a greater punishment than what the court had come to the conclusion.”

There have been cases (even in Sweden) where the either the prosecution or the defendants appealed the judgment and received a harsher sentence. It seems like the prosecutors are expecting such decisions from the court of appeals on the current case too.

Steroid Trafficker Sentenced for Online Distribution Ring

According to Acting United States Attorney Tom Larson of the Western District of Missouri, the second defendant of a four person online steroid smuggling ring received a sentence in a federal court. The defendant, Aaron Vincent Schweidler, a 32-year-old from Smithfield, NC, ran a $2.25 million anabolic steroid “over the internet” conspiracy. U.S. Chief District Judge Greg Kays sentenced him to four years in federal prison without a chance of parole.

On Monday, November 7, 2016, the man pleaded guilty to his role in the manufacture and distribution of anabolic steroids, along with conspiracy to commit money laundering. Schweidler admitted that he, along with his co-workers conspirators, ran an internet “company” called Power Trip where they sold the steroids to customers throughout the United States. All co-defendants, Nicole R. Lyne, 26; Michael G. Peters, 27; and Samuel C. Miller IV, 30, pleaded guilty of the same crimes. Miller and Peters also admitted identity theft.

The operation started in 2011, in Utah, until Schweidler raised enough cash to move to North Carolina. There, he continued the business. Peters followed and served as the main co-conspirator at that time. Schweidler handed more and more responsibility to Peters who then took on Lyne and Miller.

They initially just worked the finances; the press release clarified:

“Conspirators required customers to pay for the steroids by using various debit cards. Customers used names and account numbers for these debit cards that were provided by conspirators. Conspirators used stolen identities to produce or obtain debit cards, such as Green Dot MoneyPak, MyVanilla, ReloadIT, NetSpend ReloadIT and BlackHawk. They required their customers to send payments to these cards in order to conceal and disguise the proceeds of the illegal transactions.”

In order to avoid law enforcement, the conspirators moved to Kansas City, Mo. There, they continued the operation. The steroid site grew in popularity at this time and law enforcement discovered that Schweidler personally sent $176,000, or more, to China in exchange for over 60,000 dosages of Testosterone Propionate, Halotestin, and other anabolic Steroids. Some of which came in precursor form as law enforcement found a recipe book when they raided the group.

Schweidler used the U.S. Postal Service station on Barry Road in Kansas City to ship packages to Power Trip customers. Many packages listed a return address for “Hype Electronics & Game Super Store.” Like so many cases of the same sort, the store had nothing to do with the steroids. The USPIS agents credited with investigating the case noticed “Power Trip” vials within these packages.
In addition to the four years without parole, Schweidler, according to the announcement, must forfeit property in North Carolina along with $2.25 million as the proceeds of a drug crime.

Malware Bricking Insecure IoT Devices Could Be a Vigilante Tool Against Botnets

According to a researcher, a newly found malware could be an anti-botnet vigilante tool by bricking the IoT devices that are considered as insecure.

A researcher, Pascal Geenens, who discovered the BrickerBot malware told Cyberscoop that the newly found malicious software could be a creation of a vigilante hacker. The new malware is capable of attacking and destroying insecure connected Internet of Things (IoT) devices, abusing the same security flaws as the infamous Mirai botnet. Geenens said that it is not yet clear how many devices have been damaged by BrickerBot. Since the researcher discovered the new malware when two varieties of BrickerBot attacked his honeypot – a network of computers left on the internet as bait for cybercriminals – he does not clearly know what the impact could be against real IoT devices (the researcher’s honeypot did not contain any actual IoT devices).

BrickerBot’s work is quite simple: it attacks devices by trying to corrupt their firmware and flash memory. According to Geenens, the author could be a vigilante hacker who tries to punish both the careless users and the manufacturers, who designed the devices without any security or did not provide any support to secure the equipment.

“It could be a white-hat-turned-grey-hat,” Geenens said. “The damage might be total, to stop the device from working at all, or it might be almost unnoticeable … It might be more or less permanent.”

The researcher added that some kinds of damage could be fixed by rebooting the devices, however, other devices could be “bricked”, meaning that it is destroyed or rendered useless. Geenens said that none of the users had reported such attacks of the BrickerBot. According to him, webcams are the most vulnerable devices to the attacks of the malware.

In October, last year, hackers launched a devastating attack with using more than 500,000 IoT devices from China, Hong Kong, and South Korea to launch DDoS (distributed denial of service) attacks against victims to demand ransom in bitcoins. The malware recruited such devices into huge botnets, and used their internet connections to deluge targeted sites with fake traffic, knocking them offline in a DDoS attack. In December 2016, a hacker from the same group, known as “BestBuy” claimed that he infected approximately 3.2 million routers by his ineliminable malware, which cannot be fixed or eliminated with a firmware fix, factory reset or clearance of memory. To prove his claims, the hacker shared a live feed of device access updates with the media.

“It could be a black-hat hacker, whose botnet lost out, looking for revenge [on former competitors] by … eradicating the problem,” Geenens added that a furious botnet “herder” could be the creator of the BrickerBot.

According to the researcher, BrickerBot breaks into devices the same way Mirai does, by scanning the internet, looking for their connections and then trying a series of manufacturers’ default passwords. But once successfully connected, it does not install malware to propagate itself, as Mirai does. Instead, the malware sends the compromised device a series of commands designed to cripple it, principally by destroying embedded flash memory or other firmware components.

“My presumption is that those devices had been compromised,” said Geenens about the devices the first version of BrickerBot attacked. The first version of the malware infected about a dozen routers connected to the internet last month, all of them were running outdated operating system firmware.

After the attack stopped, four days passed, and the malware started attacking the researcher’s fake devices. BrickerBot launched 1,800 separate attempts to destroy the fake devices in Geenens’ honeypot.

The second version of BrickerBot, which had started within an hour of the first, continues to this day, the research said. It is much slower, attacking only every two hours, and the source is hidden since the attacks are launched over the Tor network hidden behind the dark web.

Now that Geenens’ report on BrickerBot has had quite some attention, the researcher suggested that the author of the malware to come forward in some fashion, perhaps even anonymously, to “enjoy some of the acclaims.”

“A look of people [have expressed admiration on social media for] what he’s done, so he might come out … Or he might get scared [at all the attention he’s generating] and stop,” the researcher said.

Australian Border Force to Increase Darknet Presence

The US fought designer drugs, commonly referred to as analogues, ever since their inception. Clandestine laboratories kept creating new “designer drugs” that mimicked the effects of another drug, usually a pharmaceutical compound. US authorities found themselves unable to maintain a pace with new chemicals. Now, Australia announced that they stood in a similar position.

These analogue “cat-and-mouse games,” so to speak, went nowhere. But then the rise of opioid analogue uevent overdoses gave the US a slight nudge. Darknet markets took the blame without—both because many marketplaces stocked highly potent opioid analogues and similarly because the media, general public, and authoritative figures loved to hate cryptomarkets. And, of course, the Canada incident revealed that anyone could place orders for carfentanil via bulk suppliers in China.

Law enforcement stepped their game up once the China connection became a headline. The DEA claimed that agents maintained contact with Chinese law enforcement and worked on preventing the production and exportation of fentanyl analogues. Then, after warnings from American counterpart agencies, the Australian Border Force created a team to monitor the darknet. The DEA recently warned the Australian government that a similar “opioid epidemic” would likely manifest in Australia.

Australian Border Force Chief Roman Quaedvlieg told News Corp Australia that the threat was valid. “Fentanyl has caused a large number of deaths across North America over a number of years and we fear it could result in a similar toll here as a result of its potency.“ Australian law enforcement actively pursued darknet buyers and vendors, if found.

After the recent arrest of a buyer, ABF Acting Commander Palmer said that we [ABF and SAPOL] “are well aware of these websites [darknet marketplaces] and take any attempts to import illegal controlled drugs very seriously. Working with our partner agencies, we will continue to target those people who think they can illegally purchase and import illicit goods online.”

Chief Roman Quaedvlieg explained that the ABF and partner agencies “had significant intelligence holdings engaged to darknet sites.” Authorities already captured packages at the border but Quaedvlieg said that with an online presence, law enforcement could intercept far more drugs than before. “People should not underestimate the ability of Australian and international authorities to track and detect imports purchased via these websites,” he added.

ABF’s International Mail Command’s Superintendent Phillip Anderson emphasized that quantities in a seized package may seem insignificant but were quite the opposite with respect to potency. “Even on the Darknet where people are buying Fentanyl and Carfentanil they are putting warnings,” he said. “Even the Darknet is warning people about dealing with this stuff. We are aware there has been overdoses with this because they tend to mix it with other stuff at the same time.

He added that “detections are now regular, sometimes even three a day.” Chief Quaedvlieg said he saw between four and five small seizures a week. Usually only one or two grams per package. The agency planned on improving the ability to seizure packages at the Australian border, especially those from China.

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Rekrutmen Tenaga Non PNS RSUD Kota Malang Tahun 2017

Rumah Sakit Daerah Kota Malang – RSUD Kota Malang kelurahan Bumiayu Kecamatan Kedungkandang merupakan Rumah sakit daerah milik Pemerintah Kota Malang yang baru.

Kota Malang adalah sebuah kota yang terletak di Provinsi Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Kota yang berpenduduk 857.891 jiwa ini (2014) berada di dataran tinggi yang cukup sejuk, terletak 90 km sebelah selatan Kota Surabaya, dan wilayahnya dikelilingi oleh Kabupaten Malang. Luas wilayah kota Malang adalah 110,06 km2. Malang merupakan kota terbesar kedua di Jawa Timur setelah Surabaya. Bersama dengan Kabupaten Malang dan Kota Batu, Kota Malang merupakan bagian dari kesatuan wilayah yang dikenal dengan Malang Raya.

RSUD Kota Malang kembali membuka lowongan tenaga non PNS untuk ditempatkan di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Kota Malang dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut :

Formasi yang dibutuhkan :

1 Dokter Spesialis Bedah
2 Dokter Spesialis Patologi Klinik
3 Perawat Terampil
4 Bidan Terampil
5 Pekarya Kesehatan
6 Pranata Laboratorium Kesehatan Pelaksana
7 Operator Mesin Instalasi Penyehatan Lingkungan
8 Nutrisionist Terampil
9 Teknisi Elektromedis Pelaksana

Juru Bangunan
1. Perekam Medis Terampil
2. Asisten Apoteker
3. Binatu Rumah sakit
4. Pengemudi ambulance dan Mobil Jenazah
5. Petugas Kebersihan
6. Petugas jaga Keamanan
7. Pengadministrasi Umum

Teknisi IT
1.Petugas Humas
2 Resepsionis
3 Persyaratan :

Surat lamaran ditujukan kepada Direktur RSUD Kota Malang, ditulis tangan sendiri dengan tinta hitam, di atas kertas double folio bergaris, dengan materai 6000 dan ditandatangani oleh pelamar (format lihat contoh);

1. Daftar Riwayat Hidup dan ditandatangani (tanpa materai)
2. Foto copy KTP yang masih berlaku sebanyak 1 lembar;
3. Umur pelamar maksimal 35 tahun pada 1 Juni 2017 kecuali untuk formasi Dokter Spesialis;
4. Surat Keterangan Sehat dari dokter dari instansi pemerintah (rumah sakit/puskesmas)
5. Keterangan/pengalaman kerja dari institusi pemerintah/swasta (apabila ada);
6. Foto copy ijasah SD sampai dengan terakhir sesuai kualifikasi formasi berikut transkrip nilai, untuk ijasah dan trankrip nilai terakhir harus dilegalisir (cap basah dan tanda tangan asli) oleh yang berwenang;
7. Foto copy akreditasi program studi (jurusan) yang terakreditasi minimal B oleh BAN-PT atau instansi yang berwenang terhadap akreditasi lembaga pendidikan (bagi lulusan D-III, S1 dan S2);
8. Surat Tanda Registrasi (STR) bagi lulusan D3/S1/S2 Kesehatan yang masih berlaku
9. Foto copy ijasah profesi yang dilegalisir pejabat yang berwenang bagi lulusan S.1 dan S.2 Kesehatan;
10. Foto Copy sertifikat Pelatihan yang dimiliki ( Bagi Perawat dan Bidan Wajib memiliki sertifikat BLS yang masih berlaku);
11. Foto Copy sertifikat pelatihan khusus
12. Khusus tenaga bidan harus melampirkan fotokopi KTA IBI

Indeks prestasi kumulatif (IPK) atau nilai kumulatif ijasah minimal :
. D-III / S.1 dan S2 = 2,75 untuk negeri
. D-III / S.1 dan S2 = 3,00 untuk swasta
. SMA / sederajat = 7,00

Mengisi surat pernyataan bersedia tidak mengundurkan diri apabila dinyatakan lulus seleksi (lihat contoh);
Surat pernyataan tidak boleh hamil pada tahun pertama bekerja
Pas foto berwarna terbaru ukuran 4×6 sebanyak 2 lembar dan pada bagian belakang dicantumkan nama pelamar;

Apabila salah satu dari syarat yang telah ditentukan di atas tidak dipenuhi, maka dinyatakan tidak memenuhi syarat dan dinyatakan gugur;
Berkas lamaran menjadi milik panitia.
Persyaratan khusus masing-masing formasi dapat dilihat di laman sumber
Tata Cara Pendaftaran

Pelamar memasukkan seluruh kelengkapan persyaratan pendaftaran ke dalam map coklat ukuran folio ditujukan kepada KETUA PANITIA SELEKSI TENAGA NON PNS RSUD KOTA MALANG Jl. Rajasa No. 27 Kelurahan Bumiayu Kota Malang Kode POS 65135 dengan mencantumkan identitas nama pelamar, kualifikasi pendidikan, dan nama jabatan formasi, kode formasi yang dipilih pada pojok kanan atas.

Berkas Lamaran dikirim melalui POS ( tidak melayani pengiriman berkas secara langsung).
Bagi yang pernah mengirim berkas sebelum pengumuman ini dibuat dianggap belum pernah mengirimkan berkas dan dipersilahkan mengirim ulang melalui POS.
Berkas lamaran diterima oleh Panitia Seleksi Tenaga Non PNS RSUD Kota Malang paling lambat 3 Mei 2017.

Pelamar yang lulus seleksi administrasi akan diumumkan pada tanggal 6 Mei 2017 melalui website Resmi RSUD Kota Malang dengan alamat website : http://rsud.malangkota.go.id dan http://malangkota.go.id
Jadwal Seleksi :

Penerimaan berkas melalui POS mulai tanggal 21 April s.d. 3 Mei 2017
Pengumuman hasil seleksi administrasi pada tanggal 6 Mei 2017

Pengambilan nomor ujian bagi yang lulu seleksi administrasi pada tanggal 8 s.d. 9 Mei 2017 di RSUD Kota Malang
Tes tulis dilaksanakan pada tanggal 10 Mei 2017

Pengumuman bagi yang lulus Tes Tulis pada tanggal 15 Mei 2017 diumumkan di website RSUD Kota Malang dan ditempel di RSUD Kota Malang
Tes wawancara pada tanggal 17 Mei 2017

Pengumuman bagi peserta yang diterima sebagai tenaga non PNS pada tanggal 22 Mei 2017 di website RSUD Kota Malang dan ditempel di RSUD Kota Malang
Orientasi pada tanggal 22 sampai dengan 30 Mei 2017

Tempat ujian akan ditentukan SelanjutnyaDalam pelaksanaan ujian setiap peserta wajib membawaKartu tanda peserta ujianKartu tanda pendudukAlat tulis pensil 2BAlas untuk menulisKetentuan Umum :Penerimaan tenaga non PNS RSUD Kota Malang terdiri dari beberapa tahapan, mulai dari pengumuman pendaftaran online, seleksi administrasi, verifikasi berkas, ujian (tulis, keterampilan dan wawancara), pengumuman yang diterima.Bersedia mengikuti seluruh proses tahapan seleksi sesuai dengan jadwal yang ditentukan.Catatan :Ingat …Surat keterangan kelulusan atau ijazah sementara tidak diterimaPelamar yang memenuhi persyaratan administrasi pendaftaran mendapat tanda nomor peserta ujianTanda nomor peserta Ujian harus dibawa dan ditunjukkan ke panitia pada saat mengikuti ujianRSUD Kota Malang tidak bertanggung jawab atas pungutan atau tawaran berupa apapun oleh oknum yang mengatasnamakan RSUD Kota Malang atau PanitiaBerkas lamaran yang tidak memenuhi persyaratan tersebut di atas tidak akan diprosesApabila ada hal-hal yang kurang jelas terkait penerimaan tenaga non PNS Rumah Sakit dapat menghubungi panitia di RSUD Kota Malang Jalan Rajasa nomor 27 Kelurahan Bumiayu Kecamatan Kedungkandang MalangKeputusan panitia bersifat final dan tidak dapat diganggu gugat oleh pihak manapunInfo selengkapnya, silakan cek di laman : Sumber

Sejarah Google Adsense

Sejarah Google Adsense  terbilang masih baru di Indonesia. Adsense baru muncul versi Indonesia tahun 2012 tetapi sebanarnya Google Adsense telah muncul pada tahun 2003. Program ini sangat digemari para blogger atau pemilik situ karena dapat menambah penghasilan yang sangat lumayan untuk penggunanya.

Keberadaan Google Adsense memang sudah lama tetapi masih tergolong baru di indonseia. Bagi anda yang mempunyai situs-situs hendaknya menggunakan fasilitas ini untuk menambah penghasilan anda per bulannya. Anda bahkan dengan tidak melakukan apapun akan menerima komisi dari Google yang terhubung dalam forum Adsense ini.

Untuk membuat Adsense anda cukup menyiapkan blog dan space yang akan dimasuki oleh bnayak pengiklan. Selain itu, dengan adanya iklan maka anda akan mendapatkan viewer yang banyak mengingat jika ada yang mengiklankan produk maka situs anda akan dinilai sudah terkenal dan terpercaya.

Apa itu Adsense? Google Adsense adalah program pengiklanan untuk blog-blog yang ada di seluruh dinua. Bagi anda yang sangat ingin blog anda menghasilkan sesuatu maka Google Adsense adalah solusinya. Anda dapat menambah penghasilan dengan hanya menyediakan space iklan bagi Google Adsense. Anda harus melakukan pendaftaran terlebih dahulu sehingga anda akan terhubung dengan Google. Dengan terhubung, anda akan mendapatkan berbagai keuntungan yang secara langsung dapat anda peroleh.

Penggunaan Google Adsense inipun terbilang sangat mudah karena dapat diimplementasikan oleh siapapun. Anda tinggal melihat cara pembuatannya di situs Google Adsense anda sudah mendapatkan tata cara lengkap untuk mendaftar. Dengan mendaftar anda akan mendapatkan akun yang nantinya akan djadikan sasaran iklan.

Untuk iklan yang ditampilkan juga menurut lelang dari pengiklan yang akan dilakukan ketika anda sudah memiliki space untuk iklan setela anda mempumyai space untuk iklan maka Google kan mulai melelang space anda dan akan menerima pengiklan dengan bayaran yang tertinggi. Sehingga anda akan mendapatkan bayaran yang lebih tinggi.

Untuk pembayaran pun tidak usah khawatir karena sudah diurus oleh Google Adsense. Google Adsense akan menagih tagihan iklan anda kepada pengiklan sehingga bayaran yang akan anda terima sangatlah terkontrol, bahkan anda akan dengan mudah mendapatkan bayaran anda melalui akun bank yang didaftarkan. Nah, bagi kalian yang mempunyai e-banking maka anda dapat mengontrolnya seiap saat. Bayaran yang anda terima biasanya akan tepat waktu dan berjumlah tepat dengan kontrak yang ada.

Periklanan memang sudah tidka asing lagi, banyak yang mengharapkan produknya laku dipasaran. Google Adsense mempunyai banyak pelanggan sehingga tidak susah untuk menemukan pengiklan untuk mengisi space iklan anda. anda hanya tinggal menunggu dirumah dengan cara bersantai maka anda akan menikmato banyak ang yang akna masuk dengan sendirinya.

Anda akan mendapatkan beberapa persyaratan atau kebijakan dari Google. Anda harus mematuhi peraturan tersebut kaena jika tidak anda akan ditangguhkan aaupun akan dihapus dari Adsense. Google Adsense sangat mudah untuk digunakan dan juga sangat simple untuk ukuran buatan luar negeri. Anda akan sangat terbatu dengan kemudahan kemudahan yang disediakan oleh Google ini. tetapi yang perlu digaris bawahi adalah anda harus mematuhi peraturan yang ada.

Doodle Adsense juga merupakan salah satu pelopor periklanan melalui blog atau situs online. Sebenarnya ada banyak jas ayang menawarkan hal ini tetapi karena Google memang terpercaya maka banyak orang yang menggunakan Google Adsense untuk menambhan penghasilan mereka. Anda aebaiknya menggunakan Google Adsense karena sangat terpercaya dan terjamin. Google akan menjaga integritas mereka sehingga sangat tidak mungkin anda mendapatkan pelanggaran. Dan juka memang terjadi kemungkinannya sangat kecil.

Google Adsense mempermudah anda yang sedang ingin mencari uang dengan cara yang sangat mudah. Anda cukup menunggu saja dirumah dan akan ada kiriman uang bagi anda, sehingga anda akan mendapatkan banyak tambahan dari Google Adsense. Bahkan ada yang mendapatkan sampai 100 dollar amerika serikat dalam sehari. Jadi dia mendapat 1 juta rupiah dalam sehari. Jumlah yang sangat fantastis jika dibandingkan dengan pekerjaan lain.

Attention – Anomalous RSA Keys In Tor Relays Can Undermine Your Privacy

The Tor network is by far the biggest volunteer run anonymous network on the planet. Since its launch, the network has witnessed thousands of relay nodes come and go, throughout the past 10 years. To deploy the onion routing protocol, all relay nodes maintain multiple RSA keys, the most essential of which are long term keys that never changes, and medium term keys that rotate periodically.

Relay nodes with weak cryptographic keys can undermine the security and privacy of Tor users. The degree of affection of Tor users relies on the type of keys that are vulnerable. In mild affection instances, the attacker succeeds only in compromising the TLS layer keys responsible for protection of Tor cells, which are chunks of data representing the flow of traffic across the circuit formed by Tor relay nodes. In severe affection instances, the attacker successfully compromises a relay’s long term key, or the “identity key”, allowing him/her to deceivingly impersonate this relay node. Accordingly, to heighten the security of Tor users, new methods are needed to quickly identify relay nodes with vulnerable keys to exclude them from the network, before they can be exploited by adversaries.

A group of researchers from Princeton University, tried to detect vulnerable and anomalous keys, via analyzing a publicly available dataset of 3.7 million public keys of the RSA type. They searched for shared prime numbers, non-standard RSA exponents and shared moduli. Interestingly enough, they discovered around 3,000 keys with shared prime numbers, that belong to a research project that was published in 2013. Ten relay nodes in the analyzed dataset shared the same modulus, which suggests manual interference with the process that generates the RSA keys. Moreover, the researchers discovered 122 relay nodes, with RSA exponents that were different from Tor’s hard coded exponents. They concluded that the greater proportion of these relay nodes were aimed at manipulating Tor’s distributed hash table (DHT) for the purpose of attacking onion domains. Even more, they deployed a special tool that emulates how onion domains are included in the DHT, which uncovered four onion domains that were mostly targeted by attackers.

The entities behind the incidents that were uncovered by the study are prominently diverse representing developers, researchers and malicious attackers who all took part in the process of generation of key anomalies. Via searching for information that relay nodes had in common, including similar IP address blocks, nicknames, port numbers and uptimes, the researchers managed to categorize the discovered relay nodes into clusters that were probably administrated by the same entities.

The researchers made all their source code and obtained data publically available, to enable third parties such as The Tor Project to monitor the keys of newly formed relay nodes and notify developers whenever generated keys are found to be non-standard or vulnerable. As such, Tor developers can react early and exclude these relay nodes from the network, before malicious attackers can exploit their key vulnerabilities.

Even though previous research studies analyzed the implications of vulnerable or anomalous RSA keys across various systems, this study represents the first ever study to analyze the influence of weak RSA keys on the security of Tor users. The study made two major contributions to the security of the Tor network:

1. It analyzed a dataset comprised of 3.7 million public keys of the RSA type in an attempt to discover weak, anomalous and/or non-standard keys, which revealed thousands of vulnerable keys.

2. It also described the features of the relay nodes discovered, showing that the greater percentage of these nodes were mostly run by a single entity, and revealing four onion domains that were mostly targeted by malicious attackers.

Continuous and periodic monitoring of relay’s keys is mandatory to maximize the security of users and help early discover and exclude relays with vulnerable or anomalous keys, so similar studies are needed to be conducted in the future.

German Police Place “Trial” Orders At AlphaBay Sellers To Track Criminals

According to the German news outlet chip.de, law enforcement authorities in the country place test orders at AlphaBay vendors for an attempt to track down the criminals.

The Silk Road Marketplace was the most popular marketplace on the dark web for a rather long time until the Federal Bureau of Investigation busted the website in October 2013. On the current dark net scene, AlphaBay rules the market with providing products to the customers from credit card data to weapons, drugs and malicious software, latter promising its buyers a profitable business model. Most of the vendors and customers like the platform – they are supposed to handle sales in millions of dollars. For this reason, Cyberscoop calls the marketplace the “Amazon of the Darknet”.

According to chip.de, the success and popularity of AlphaBay can be explained by the professionalism and reliability of which the site is managed. For months, it has been steady and has been running at a high speed – for dark net trading venues it is anything but a matter of course – and nowhere else is the offer as comprehensive and complete as there.

Enterprises such as the Rainmaker Labs are represented on AlphaBay. They sell “prefabricated” malicious software that allows customers to adapt to their own needs and search for vulnerable victims. Security gaps, which are also traded on the black market, are being used.

In principle, the functionality of AlphaBay is old-fashioned. The operators, of course, strive for the highest level of anonymity, provide only the platform on which dealers can offer products. Those interested can browse through the offer and shop for products – evaluation system, of course, is included. A trustee system is designed to ensure that customers receive the ordered goods, and traders their money. AlphaBay handles the service and collects a commission for it.

The German news outlet said that anyone behind AlphaBay is unknown. Chip.de’s research claimed that there is a chance that the platform is run by a circle of at least twelve people, the servers are supposed to be in Russia. While stolen identities may be traded on the platform, the sale of personal data of Russian citizens is strictly prohibited. Even malicious software, which can be offered on the platform without problems, must be equipped with a mechanism that prevents the attack of Russian computers. Not having to deal with Russian authorities could be one of the reasons for the longevity of AlphaBay.

According to chip.de, police and other law enforcement agencies remain “outside” since the dark web’s infrastructure makes it virtually impossible to identify operators, dealers or customers as long as they do not make big mistakes. Instead, the authorities resort to classical police work: they supervise the scene, carry out “trial” purchases, and when goods actually arrive, there is at least a first track that can be examined. Security gaps in the platforms themselves are another possible starting point for information gathering. Law enforcement authorities in Germany are focusing on careless traders, who can be assigned real identities on the basis of e-mail addresses or user names, who could be easily arrested with the method of trial purchases. In such instances, investigators order products from the suspects, mostly narcotics, and when the payment is sent, the vendor sends the illicit goods to the undercover police agents. After the parcel or parcels arrive, a forensic examination is conducted on the package and its contents. If traces are found in the investigation, law enforcement authorities could easily identify the seller, and prosecute him or her. Additionally, undercover police officers also examine the online details of the sellers to see whether they made any mistakes on the online platform, which law enforcement authorities could use to arrest them and take down their businesses.

Accordingly, the police regularly succeed to arrest traders of illegal goods, chip.de says. Successes against platform operators are less frequent – often after a certain time, they simply submerge themselves, without neglecting the sums deposited (exit scams). Whether and when this destiny hits AlphaBay, nobody knows. If the platform is enduring through the end of the year, however, it has at least broken Silk Road’s longevity record.

Netherlands Identity Fraud Doubled Between 2015-2016

Increased levels of fraud, in general, should come as no surprise. And even less of one after glancing at the DeepDotWeb frontpage where no mistake regarding fraud, cybercrime, or hacking could possibly be made; on almost a daily basis, a new indecent occurs. A major company takes a hit, the United States indicts another hacker, or researchers find a new database dump listed on a darknet marketplace.

However, countries rarely report a doubling in any sector of cybercrime. But a report from the Netherlands revealed just that. The Netherlands revealed a major increase in the Identity fraud and theft sectors, both of which the Dutch people have struggled with for some time. In 2012, the Central Bureau Of Statistics (or the Central Statistics Agency) reported that 200,000 Dutch fell victim to one form of identity fraud or another. The majority accidentally swiped their credit cards at locations with card skimmers implemented. Regardless, 200,000 people is one-and-a-half percent of the Dutch population, counting only those who were above the age of 15.

According to the ANP report in 2015, 805 people reported an instance of identity fraud. The records came from the Identity Fraud Hotline, so they were not all confirmed cases of identity fraud. Merely reports. The ANP said that people may take advantage of the abuse of the identity fraud hotline, creating an artificial statistical model. And they used that explanation regarding the 2016 figures that quite literally “more than doubled“ those of 2015.

The hotline, in 2016, received 1,724 individual reports of identity fraud. ANP representatives gave no sound explanation as to why the numbers spiked. They speculated, however, that a recent government campaign pushed increased awareness of identity theft, as intended. And, as a result, more victims of the crime reached out when existence of the hotline became known.

Alternatively, a spokesperson for the ANP told the press, the increased awareness, possibly encouraged abuse of the system. Really via the same reasoning the increased awareness possibly helped those otherwise unaware of the bottle; the more publicity the hotline received, the greater the odds of abuse rose. Fraud reports recently moved to the internet—the hotline opened itself to a wider range of people, inherently.

The report gave a breakdown of the type of identity fraud that occurred. Starting at the most cases, the majority involved identity fraud, passports, and IDs; misuse of public information like addresses and phone numbers; passport fraud; ID fraud and a separate category for drivers licenses.

Outlaw Market Prepares Scam-Deterring Revamp

Outlaw is one of the few darknet marketplaces that predated Alphabay—almost difficult to imagine. However, other than a small number of devoted users, the market sees fewer new customers than Alphabay or Dream, the other darknet marketplace veterans. Why this is the case, only few know. However, the administration outlined plans that may not only revolutionize Outlaw but also attract both more vendors and customers.

The first change, and possibly the most important, is one beneath the surface. One of the most powerful decision-making elements, as evidenced by every other post on any number of darknet discussion boards, is financial safety. Consumers want to know their money will not vanish in an exit scam. They want to know if a vendor is trustworthy.

In most cases, ratings help determine every decision a consumer makes. This works for finding the best product but also for finding the most reliable or trustworthy vendor. In this era, the classic escrow system is flawed. Bad customers can easily scam perfectly good vendors. And for newer, less established vendors, escrow may not always be the most viable marketplace sales platform.

This is why “we now use what we call TLCE, Time Locked Currency Escrow,” an Outlaw admin wrote in an email. “This system is combined with our already existing Vendor Market-Exit Insurance (VMEI) and a new Satisfaction Guarantee (SG).” The admin continued to explain that, “instead of using manual actions and decisions, payments to the vendor now rely on a system using statistical data to ensure objectivity and honestly as much as possible.”

Now, when an order is placed:

    1. Customers send the payment to the Outlaw ​mixer.
    2. After the vendor marks the order as “shipped,” the payment moves to the TLCE.
    3. Outlaw checks the vendor’s scam risk through the VMEI and VMEI settings.
    4. Average delivery times are checked as well, with respect to distance or location.
    5. Along with a handful of similar variables, these “parameters” dictate fund release.

“After this period, the currency-value of the order is released to the vendor, independent on an arrival confirmation of the customer,” the admin clarified. “If a vendor gets a lot of orders on one day, the smallest order will be paid out first, followed 6 hours later by the second smallest order and so on. Thus, if a vendor has 10 orders in a day, his first payout will be after the calculated period and his last one 2.5 days later.”

Pakistan Sees Increased DNM Credit Card Sales

On March 20, two Two Chinese citizens fell into Pakistani Federal Investigation Agency custody after being caught on camera while stealing from ATMs. The FIA announced that the ATM fraud hit their radar on March 10; they received complaints from the branch manager of Bank alHabib, Chartered Accountant Avenue Branch. After an investigation ensued, authorities captured both “hackers.” According to Deputy Director of Cybercrime Muhammad Ahmad Zaeem, Pakistani credit card information is readily available on the darknet.

Zaeem watched the credit card thieves as they installed magnetic card readers like those used in the majority of credit card skimming crimes. He said the FIA allowed the skimmer installation for “proof before acting or arresting them, we wanted to catch them red handed.” Through their arrest, the FIA learned that vendors auctioned off the stolen financial information of Pakistani victims.

The Deputy Director explained that criminals commonly used the same technique at ATMs: one with a card skimmer and a pinhole camera. The card skimmer angle rarely changes; in past cases DeepDotWeb covered, the card thief inserted a magnetic strip card reader into the ATM or other card reading machines like gasoline pumps. The card reader contacted the thief—often through a wireless connection like Bluetooth, WiFi, or cellular data—unless the unit simply stored data locally. In which case, a manual pickup of the unit would be required.

He further explained that, in order to get a victim’s PIN code, the thief installed a microscopic pinhole camera. The card number alone is worth very little in today’s day and age—for online activities, at least.

The FIA arrested both Chinese nationals as they retrieved the skimmers and pinhole cameras from an ATM in Clifton. He gave examples of similar activity throughout Pakistan and acknowledged that this occurrence was not exclusive to Pakistan; in just two hours, similar rogue parties stole $12 million from ATMs in Japan.

The stolen credit card data, Iike most stolen databases or account logins, ended up on the darknet, he said. The Deputy Director explained that the FIA discovered that vendors usually auctioned credit card data to the highest bidder. The darknet, he explained, “is basically a platform for hackers.” The stolen credit card data “is used there for illegal activities, like making fake cash withdrawals, money laundering and carrying out online transactions.”

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Asal Mula Masyarakat Gayo Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam

Gayo suatu daerah di belahan bumi sebelah utara garis khatulistiwa yang terletak di tengah-tengah propinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Gayo merupakan daerah sentral bagi daerah-daerah sekitarnya seperti Aceh Utara, Aceh Barat, Pidie, Aceh Timur dan Sumatera Utara. Terletak di tengah-tengah pegunungan daerah Aceh yang membujur dari utara ke bagian tenggara sepanjang bukit barisan bagian ujung pulau Sumatera.

Suku bangsa Gayo orang-orang yang mendiami kabupaten yang disebut Aceh Tengah dan Bener Meriah. Penduduk daerah Gayo pada masa sekarang ini terdiri dari suku bangsa Gayo sendiri, yang juga berasal dari suku bangsa lain seperti Aceh, Jawa, Minangkabau bahkan orang-orang Cina, baik WNI maupun WNA yang menetap di Takengon.

Pada masa lampau penduduk daerah Gayo dibagi menjadi dua bagian, yaitu penduduk daerah Gayo yang bertempat tinggal di Kebayakan dan penduduk Gayo yang bertempat tinggal di Bebesan.
Kampung Kebayakan terletak di sebelah barat laut danau Laut Tawar. Sedangkan Kampung Bebesan terdapat sebelah barat Kebayakan. Kedua kampung tersebut dihubungkan oleh jalan kurang lebih 1 Km.

Dalam sejarah, penduduk yang mendiami kampun Kebayakan dan Bebesan merupakan kampung “inti” di Gayo Laut, mempunyai satu anggapan bahwa asal usul mereka berbeda. Penduduk kampung Kebayakan mengatakan mereka adalah penduduk asli di daerah Gayo ini.

Sedangkan yang satu pihak lagi, yakni penduduk kampung Bebesan, memang menyadari bahwa mereka berasal dari Batak (Tapanuli), lebih popular disebut dengan Batak 27 (disebut dengan Batak 27 karena dalam sejarah kedatangan mereka ke Gayo pada jaman lampau, orang-orang Batak ini berjumlah 27 orang).

Belum jelas pada abad berapa peristiwa kedatangan Batak Karo 27 tersebut ke Tanah Gayo. Namun, pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah Al Kahar, pada abad ke 16 M pernah tujuh pemuda dari tanah Karo bertamasya ke Tanah Gayo. Kedatangan mereka guna menyaksikan kebenaran keindahan laut tawar (H. AR. Latief, 1995 : 81).

Menurut Dr. C. Snouck Hougronje, kedatangan Batak Karo 27, Pada masa kejuruan (raja) bukit telah memeluk Islam. Kejuruan Bukit adalah suatu bagian dari raja-raja yang terdapat di tanah Gayo yang memiliki hubungan baik dengan kerajaan-kerajaan (kejuruan) lain.

Kedatangan orang-orang dari Tapanuli yang dikenal dengan istilah “Batak 27” ini melahirkan nama-nama Belah atau Clan di Gayo dengan nama yang hamper sama dengan marga yang ada di Tanah Karo sendiri. Seperti Clan Munthe, Cibero, Melala, Lingga, Tebe yang di Karo disebut Munthe, Sibero, Meliala dan sebagainya.

Batak 27 pada masa itu mendapat sebagian wilayah kekuasaan Raja Bukit sebagai diyat untuk mengganti kerugian akibat matinya suku Batak Karo yang terbunuh dalam peperangan.
Ganti rugi tersebut diwujudkan dengan membelah danau Laut Tawar menjadi dua sampai Kala Bintang sebelah utara termasuk daratan, mulai dari kampung Kebayakan, Rebe Gedung, Simpang Tiga, Delung Tue win Ilang hingga Ramung Kengkang perbatasan Aceh Timur (sekarang Kabupaten Bener Meriah, red) dan arah selatan sampai perbatasan Lingga.

Setelah batas wilayah ditentukan oleh kedua belah pihak yang berdamai, Raja Bukit ke II Panglima Perang Dagang mengajukan sebuuah tuntutan kampung bukit berikut bangunannya yang telah diduduki oleh Batak 27.

Raja Leube Keder berkata dengan tegas bebaskan, dalam bahasa Karo artinya dibebaskan dari tuntutan, lambat laun kata bebaskan berubah menjadi kata Bebesan sampai sekarang ini (AR. Latief, 1995). Raja Bukit Panglima Perang Dagang, kemudian bersumpah tidak berkeberatan kampung Bebesan berikut bangunannya dijadikan hak milik Batak 27.

Beberapa hari kemudian penduduk bukit sendiri membangun pemukiman baru yang terletak dipinggir Danau Laut Tawar yang sekarang disebut dengan daerah Kebayakan. Mula-mula kampung ini disebut dengan Kebanyakan karena penduduknya yang terbanyak, kemudian setelah penjajah Belanda datang dan tidak dapat menyebutkan nama kampung tersebut dengan tepat, berubah menjadi Kebayakan.

Marcopolo yang pernah singgah di Peureulak, Aceh Timur sekembali dari Cina menuju Italia tahun 1292 mengatakan bahwa penduduk Aceh telah memeluk agama Islam. Penduduk yang tidak mau memeluk agama Islam menyingkir ke pedalaman dan menjumpai kerajaan kecil di pedalaman tersebut.

Penduduk asli pedalaman ini menyebut daerahnya sebagai “Lainggow” dan menyebut rajanya dengan Ghayo-Ghayo atau raja gunung yang suci. Di daerah Lianggow tersebut telah berdiri kerajaan kecil, yaitu “Kerajaan Linggow” dan kerajaan besar yaitu kerajaan ‘Lingga’ dan sudah memiliki hubungan dengan kerajaan Peureulak di Aceh Timur dengan mengirim bingkisan (MH Gayo, 1983).

Adalah masuk akal jika catatan Marcopolo tersebut dipegang kebenarannya, maka dalam perkembangan sejarah selanjutnya penduduk pedalaman ini disebut dengan Suku Gayo.
Sementara itu ada pula orang yang beranggapan bahwa orang Gayo adalah berasal dari orang-orang yang lari dari daerah Peureulak, Aceh Tim

Sejarah Nanggroe Kerajaan Aceh Darussalam

Kerajaan Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam berdiri menjelang keruntuhan Samudera Pasai. Sebagaimana tercatat dalam sejarah, pada tahun 1360 M, Samudera Pasai ditaklukkan oleh Majaphit, dan sejak saat itu, kerajaan Pasai terus mengalami kemudunduran. Diperkirakan, menjelang berakhirnya abad ke-14 M, kerajaan Aceh Darussalam telah berdiri dengan penguasa pertama Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah yang dinobatkan pada Ahad, 1 Jumadil Awal 913 H (1511 M).

Pada awalnya, wilayah kerajaan Aceh ini hanya mencakup Banda Aceh dan Aceh Besar yang dipimpin oleh ayah Ali Mughayat Syah. Ketika Mughayat Syah naih tahta menggantikan ayahnya, ia berhasil memperkuat kekuatan dan mempersatukan wilayah Aceh dalam kekuasaannya, termasuk menaklukkan kerajaan Pasai. Saat itu, sekitar tahun 1511 M, kerajaan-kerajaan kecil yang terdapat di Aceh dan pesisir timur Sumatera seperti Peurelak (di Aceh Timur), Pedir (di Pidie), Daya (Aceh Barat Daya) dan Aru (di Sumatera Utara) sudah berada di bawah pengaruh kolonial Portugis. Mughayat Syah dikenal sangat anti pada Portugis, karena itu, untuk menghambat pengaruh Portugis, kerajaan-kerajaan kecil tersebut kemudian ia taklukkan dan masukkan ke dalam wilayah kerajaannya. Sejak saat itu, kerajaan Aceh lebih dikenal dengan nama Aceh Darussalam dengan wilayah yang luas, hasil dari penaklukan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil di sekitarnya. Sejarah mencatat bahwa, usaha Mughayat Syah untuk mengusir Portugis dari seluruh bumi Aceh dengan menaklukkan kerajaan kerajaan kecil yang sudah berada di bawah Portugis berjalan lancar. Secara berurutan, Portugis yang berada di daerah Daya ia gempur dan berhasil ia kalahkan. Ketika Portugis mundur ke Pidie, Mughayat juga menggempur Pidie, sehingga Portugis terpaksa mundur ke Pasai. Mughayat kemudian melanjutkan gempurannya dan berhasil merebut benteng Portugis di Pasai. Dengan jatuhnya Pasai pada tahun 1524 M

Aceh Darussalam menjadi satu-satunya kerajaan yang memiliki pengaruh besar di kawasan tersebut. Kemenangan yang berturut-turut ini membawa keuntungan yang luar biasa, terutama dari aspek persenjataan. Portugis yang kewalahan menghadapi serangan Aceh banyak meninggalkan persenjataan, karena memang tidak sempat mereka bawa dalam gerak mundur pasukan. Senjata-senjata inilah yang digunakan kembali oleh pasukan Mughayat untuk menggempur Portugis. Ketika benteng di Pasai telah dikuasai Aceh, Portugis mundur ke Peurelak. Namun, pasukan Aceh tidak memberikan kesempatan sama sekali pada Portugis. Peurelak kemudian juga diserang, sehingga Portugis mundur ke Aru. Tak berapa lama, Aru juga berhasil direbut oleh Aceh hingga akhirnya Portugis mundur ke Malaka.

Dalam sejarahnya, Aceh Darussalam mencapai masa kejayaan di masa Sultan Iskandar Muda Johan Pahlawan Meukuta Alam (1590 1636). Pada masa itu, Aceh merupakan salah satu pusat perdagangan yang sangat ramai di Asia Tenggara. Kerajaan Aceh pada masa itu juga memiliki hubungan diplomatik dengan dinasti Usmani di Turki, Inggris dan Belanda. Pada masa Iskandar Muda, Aceh pernah mengirim utusan ke Turki Usmani dengan membawa hadiah. Kunjungan ini diterima oleh Khalifah Turki Usmani dan ia mengirim hadiah balasan berupa sebuah meriam dan penasehat militer untuk membantu memperkuat angkatan perang Aceh. Wilayah kekuasaan Aceh mencapi Pariaman wilayah pesisir Sumatra Barat, Perak di Malaka yang secara efektif bisa direbut dari portugis tahun 1575.






Drug Trafficking by Foot Nearly Extinct in Germany

Head of the Frankfurt Customs Office, Albrecht Vieth, announced that the world of drug smuggling has changed. Changed from carrying drugs on a human body to shipping drugs through the mail. This may seem trivial by itself; many countries, Germany not excluded, cracked down on darknet drug trafficking—an activity that required frequent monitoring of mail couriers. However, Vieth had a perspective and source of data that puts the trafficking into a perspective not often shared by officials or news outlets.

For the most part, the stories that made recent headlines involved something unique to even the customs agents themselves. One example of such a headline occurred late last year when customs agents caught $293,850 worth of cocaine, destined for spain, hidden inside a woman’s breasts. Hans-Juergen Schmidt, the Frankfurt Airport Customs spokesperson said customs employees were truly surprised by the ameteur job and poorly cdmpleled surgery. “This was the first case in Germany in which drugs have been smuggled in this fashion,” the spokesperson said.

“The biggest blow to the international drug smugglers in German seaports for seven years was achieved by Zoll on 18 January 2017. The 717 kilograms of cocaine were secured in the port of Hamburg, a press release revealed. While the physically transported drugs usually take more conventional routes or methods of transportation, submarines are not out of the question.

Another, according to Isabell Gillmann, press secretary at the Frankfurt Main Main Office, Customs found 250 grams of cocaine stuffed within a single printer. The package came from Colombia and passed through Frankfurt en route to South Africa. An x-ray machine picked up on the cocaine right away, she said.

Albrecht Vieth, used the woman’s cocaine-filled breasts example as a point of reference for the change he saw in the world of drug trafficking. He mentioned that the woman already received a sentence of two and a half years in prison. He continued with some of the examples from last year. One occurrence was a woman with 10 bottles of rum in her luggage but Customs officers noticed that the bottles contained 4.6 kilograms of cocaine—combined throughout all the bottles. She received five years imprisonment.

“The Frankfurt Airport is a hub for the global drug smuggling,” he said. And as a hub, he continued, “we have seen an extreme shift in drug smuggling from travel to mail. The freight airport Leipzig / Halle has also developed into a hub of smuggling in Eastern Germany, which is responsible in three federal states for package delivery.” The majority of that mail is international, a spokesperson said.

Vieth explained that the majority of this shift came from the darknet, a “small part of the Internet” where one can buy and sell drugs. Some Customs offices see more than drugs alone, the Customs officials explained. Udo Storch, a spokesperson from the Hamburg Customs Office, said that he saw a massive increase in counterfeit goods from China. In only a few weeks, the Hamburg Customs saw enough fake perfume to fill 500 bathtubs. The office seized 1.4 million individual items so far including drugs, protected animals, and counterfeit goods.

Although the overall seizures or interceptions were lower on paper, that is not the entire story. Officers previously seized 5,296 kilograms of drugs at the Frankfurt Customs Office. So far they noticed an increase of 182 percent with respect to mailed or shipped packages. And the traveller-based seizures only amounted to 160 individual drug seizures, These numbers, of course, came from a single customs office in Germany. Differences between the various offices is expected.

Phony Bomb Threat Caller Sold Drugs on the Darknet

In early April, police arrested 19-year-old Michael Kaydar at his home in Ashkelon, Israel. Israel’s Rishon Lezion Magistrate’s’ Court remanded the 19-year-old Israeli-American hacker for the third time in part of a larger investigation. Court advised the man of conducting hundreds of fake bomb threat phone calls to Jewish institutions. The investigation took off once the hacker called Jewish Community Centers in the United States.

The FBI traced the call back to a SpoofCard phone service—a website where Kaydar placed the bomb threat calls with a fake, or spoofed, phone number. FBI agents took the matter seriously as they suspected the calls were connected to the same entity that made calls since January and possibly more across the world. Also, the FBI dislike bomb threats and treat them all, phony or legitimate, the same.

They then subpoenaed the company behind SpoofCard. They hoped to find the account owner information as, to sign up for the service, one must provide a phone number of their own. It undoubtedly came as no surprise that the so-called hacker used another number that forced the FBI to work even harder. He used a Google Voice number. Far from anonymous but easy to sign up with fictitious information.

Google servers provide agents with little information to depend on. The caller routed the Google Voice calls through a proxy that kept his identity even further hidden than the woman’s voice he used when making the fake bomb threats. Kaydar’s payment methods only made matters worse for the FBI. Instead of paying for any services with standard forms of internet payment, he used Bitcoin.

He ultimately slipped up once he felt untouchable, authorities said. He accidentally made “one or two calls” without the proxy enabled and the FBI used those attempts against him. They found and traced his IP address to the family home in Ashkelon. They truly traced the IP to an access point near the home where Kaydar launched his calls from with an external antenna that he aimed out the window but the outcome stayed the same.

Now, at his third court appearance, we learned that investigators analyzed the suspect’s computer and found that “he had traded millions of dollars in bitcoin digital currency on the darknet.” Additionally, “the suspect used the darknet to sell drugs and forge passports, driver licenses and other identity papers.” Law enforcement is looking into any potential buyers of the products that the 19-year-old once sold.

The list of charges grew tremendously, including but not limited to: “malicious intent to cause harm, sabotage, extortion and intimidation, money laundering, illegal possession of weapons, receiving illicit benefits under aggravated circumstances, falsifying computer records, hacking, inciting public panic and unlawful impersonation for the purpose of committing fraud.”

Portugal Notices Increased Darknet Trafficking

The media payed special attention to cybercrime following several key moments throughout world history. The ongoing struggle between Russia and the United States, for instance, placed a spotlight on “election hackers” and hacking in general. With added attention to internet crime came added attention to the darknet. Although the rise of the original Silk Road attracted attention from the media, the excitement rapidly declined as did the original Silk Road. Now, law enforcement worldwide publicly acknowledged the rapidly growing online trade—most recently, the Portuguese Judiciary Police​.

Pedro Veiga, coordinator of the National Center for Cybersecurity, acknowledged that the darknet came from “good intentions.” He explained​ why US government researchers built Tor: rogue parties often attempted to steal classified information if transmitted over the clearnet. “A ‘normal’ internet web was created to guarantee the privacy of these journalists. It was very difficult to detect the person’s location or even who he was,” Veiga Explained.

“It started and was developed for a good purpose, but later on, criminals began to take advantage of this new medium to anonymously use the internet. This part is called darknet,” he added.

The department’s own, independent study called the 2015 Annual Report on Internal Security revealed an increase in darknet drug trafficking. Both singular instances and crime syndicates. One example, although the report left any mention of the words darknet or dark web, was that of a drug bust in March. The Judiciary Police raided a drug laboratory in the Greater Lisbon area that tested drugs in exchange for Bitcoin. Drug testing orders were placed on the internet with Bitcoin and the lab tested the drug in question.

While no names were mentioned, the structure and setup sounds similar to that of Energy Control and the DNM Avengers. The Greater Lisbon lab likely operated on a similar fashion. Since the report left out any mention of the darknet or deepweb, few know if the lab operated on the darknet. Artur Vaz, coordinator of Criminal Investigation for the Judiciary Police, reported that the raid marked the first time the police seized bitcoins in a case.

In 2015, 0.31 grams of heroin, 21,033 grams of cocaine, 27,520 grams of cannabis and 495 grams of ecstasy arrived at mailing stations, an official said. This number, he explained, is still quite low in comparison with conventionally trafficked narcotics. However the number is rising and becoming a concern for the Judiciary Police. “The drugs can be ordered over the internet, but they have to be delivered physically. The orders made via darknet are sent by parcel post to people’s houses. This is something the Judiciary Police are aware of,” Artur Vaz said.

They closed with figures that modeled the origin of drugs from overseas. For instance, Brazil provided the most cocaine and Morocco mailed the most cannabis. Cannabis is also sent from France, Belgium, Austria, Germany and United Kingdom, he explained. Regardless of any darknet trend, he c explained that according to current figures, darknet buyers needed to order significantly more drugs to match the physical traffickers.

Three Arrested In The Netherlands For Selling Ecstasy On The DarkNet

Law enforcement authorities arrested three men, aged 25, 26 and 47, in Roosendaal, the Netherlands, for allegedly selling large amounts of ecstasy pills on the darknet

On March 30, Dutch authorities detained the three suspects for suspected trafficking in large quantities of drugs, which were sent via the national postal service to abroad countries, including the United States, Belgium, and Germany. According to police information, the alleged dealers conducted their sales on dark net marketplaces.

According to police spokesman Ed Kraszewski of the National Unit, investigators searched three houses in Roosendaal and one additional property in Schijf. Law enforcement authorities gathered a large number of evidence pointing on the sale of narcotics. In addition to that, investigators found a list with foreign addresses, which, according to the police, are the addresses of the customers. The addresses are currently transmitted to foreign authorities. During the large amounts of drugs were found, including Ecstasy pills with the Instagram logo. Investigators found the ecstasy pills in bags labeled as “fish food” and “aquarium sand”. According to the police, the logos had been used a trademark of the vendor shop. Apart from the narcotics, large quantities of packaging materials were found.

It is not yet clear how much drugs the men had sold on the dark web to their customers. The police are also investigating how long were the group engaged in the trade.

“But that was some time, it should be clear,” Kraszewski said.

The magistrate decided on Monday that the men should be kept in police custody for at least two weeks. Updates in the case should be expected soon.

Recently, the Dutch media outlet RTL Nieuws reported that criminals dealing with drugs seem to be moving their activities from the southern parts of the Netherlands to the rest of the country, especially when it comes to ecstasy. In Limburg, law enforcement authorities busted fewer drug labs last year and less drug waste was discovered than in the previous years. In Brabant, police discovered fewer narcotic labs, but more dumped drug waste. According to police information, the number of times law enforcement responded to reports of dumped drug waste in Brabant even doubled last year by an increase of 100%. The drug waste reports in Brabant represent more than half of the total of 177 responses to drug waste nationwide. But while these two provinces of the country still remain the leaders in drug-related crime, the differences are becoming less significant. As for an instance, 15 ecstasy labs were discovered in Brabant last year, and 14 in Limburg. Zuid-Holland is the third in the list, the region is not far behind with 12 ecstasy labs busted in the province in 2016. Based on these figures, law enforcement authorities believe that narcotic dealers and producers are moving their activities. The reason for the criminals’ move is because of the intensive law enforcement approach against drug crime in the southern provinces. However, the numbers are “still very high and the problem still very large”, the police added.

Two Austrians Sentenced For Ordering Counterfeit Euro Notes To Finance Their Drug Addictions

Two men from Schärding, Austria and Ried, Austria were sentenced to prison for ordering counterfeit euro bills from the darknet and putting them into circulation to finance their narcotic addiction issues.

According to police information, the two suspects, in order to finance their lives, and above it all, their drug addictions at least for a short time, ordered 50 pieces of 50 euro banknotes from the dark web. They paid using bitcoins and 2,500 euros worth of counterfeit bills cost them a total of 300 euros.

The 25-year-old man from the district of Schärding and the 30-year-old from the district of Ried were responsible for the crime of acquiring and possessing counterfeit or falsified money, and the offense of illicit involvement in narcotic-related crimes before the Regional Court of Ried. According to the criminal laws of Austria, both suspects could be punished with up to five years of imprisonment.

According to the accusation, the two previously convicted and unemployed men had always put just a few of the counterfeit 50 euro bills in circulation in various shops in order to buy low-priced products and get back genuine notes as change. The small illicit operation of the two suspects went well for a relatively long time. Police reported that the duo put more than 40 of the 50 banknotes to circulation. According to Alois Ebner, the spokesman for the public prosecutor’s office in Rüdesheim, there were indications against unknown offenders after the defendants used the fake 50 euro notes. After thorough investigations conducted by law enforcement authorities, on January 23, 2017, investigators arrested the two convicted criminals.

In court, the two defendants basically confessed. With the profits they made with the exchanged banknotes, they would have bought narcotics from the Czech border area, police information said. Law enforcement did not disclose whether the duo sought to order drugs from the dark web, or they used traditional methods to acquire the substances. However, since the two defendants used the dark net to purchase the counterfeit 50 euro notes, they possibly tried to order the drugs from the dark side of the internet too.

Judge Claudia Lechner sentenced the 25-year-old defendant to 15 months of unconditional imprisonment. In addition to that, the three conditionally imposed months, which were recommended by the defense, were canceled. The second defendant must spend a total of 14 months (one-year imprisonment and two months of rehabilitation) behind bars. The imposed sentences are currently legally binding.

Both in Germany and Austria, more and more persons are arrested or convicted for buying counterfeit euros from the dark web. Fake euro vendors offer the falsified bills for a portion of the “real price”, for example, 20% of the original price. Mostly, darknet users see the profit margin, and some of them choose to buy the bills. However, most of the time, the buyers are arrested because the counterfeit euro notes are bad quality.